Other communications tools. Eight participants' data were collected from this source. A third implication is that a support structure should be in place to help teachers make STEM-related changes to their classroom practice. 14, 309–322. (2012). We encourage STEM PD efforts that recruit teachers from at least two or more STEM disciplines, based on the nature of integration and the ability to pair concepts of the dominate STEM discipline with similar concepts from the supporting STEM disciplines (see also Corlu et al., 2014; Lambert et al., 2018). If you’ve got an art expert in your building, take full advantage! Additionally, keeping open communication between participants and facilitators and iSTEMed experts helped answer questions and resolve concerns that arose. While this conception of STEM education closer aligns to the interdisciplinary nature of problem solving and innovative thinking various corporate and government sectors profess great need and demand for, designing PD for teachers to have authentic STEM experiences is territory educational trainers and researchers have not charted. During the week-long summer session, all eight teachers completed pre- and post- administration of the T-STEM survey. The duration might be an hour or over several class periods. STEM Teach. Sch. (2014) notion of integrated STEM experiences as applied to a group of teachers within an ongoing PD setting. Sci. Keywords: professional development, STEM integration, middle and secondary teachers, mathematics education, science education, Citation: Gardner K, Glassmeyer DM and Worthy R (2019) Impacts of STEM Professional Development on Teachers' Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Practice. Furthermore, according to Honey et al. You’re most welcome Meaghan! The Logarithms and pH Assessment (LPA) consisted of two subscales, 16 items on logarithms (Cronbach's α = 0.80) and 16 items on pH (Cronbach's α = 0.85). Price: Free for 5-week access;$89 for lifetime access Platform: Future Learn |, Friday Institute for Educational Innovation, 2012, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2019.00026/full#supplementary-material, http://wp.auburn.edu/educate/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/green-spring_16.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Hi, It would be great to have some sort of group/team work reflection sheet or rubric so that students can reflect on the success of their team working towards a goal, possibly considering barriers to success as well. Curriculum standards describe observable outcomes so that items are created to assess them. We found teachers improved in their self-efficacy and made productive changes in their classroom practices, though no significant gains in content knowledge was detected. The integration centered training and instruction on making mathematics connections across science, engineering and technological design processes. As Cuban (1990)pointed out almost four decades ago, in order to solve this recurring problem we have to ask the right questions: The return of school reforms suggests that the ref… 10 Ways Teachers are Enhancing STEM Learning with 3D Printing Few would argue that STEM learning in K-8 schools is a bad idea. Res. Additional task analysis requirements for the participants were to list lesson objectives, discuss ways of maintaining a student-centered learning environment, and list anticipated student questions followed by teacher responses. (2014, p. 7) stated “one limiting factor to teacher effectiveness and self-efficacy is teachers' content knowledge in the subjects being taught.” There is plausible interdependence between research questions one and two in accounting for aspects of the PD that likely contributed to the outcomes observed for research question two. Res. 40, 1–19. Our website is home to thousands of free-to-access, quality-assured resources to support the teaching and learning of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects. The KAT ultimately served as a measure of teachers' preparedness to engage in the demanding activities of the workshop. Characteristics of PD that support changes in teachers' instructional practices emerge through a survey of research on effective programs. This success and optimism were met with challenges related to school support and declines in resource allocations, yet the teachers persisted. Int. Once open codes were established, they were axially coded into six categories. Sci. Loucks-Horsley, S., Stiles, K. E., Mundry, S., Love, N., and Hewson, P. W. (2009). In this stem certification for teachers, you will learn the key principles of effective differentiation in learning. While the need for STEM-related expertise in the workforce is growing, the number of students choosing STEM subjects at secondary and tertiary level in Australia is stagnating. Glassmeyer, D.M., Smith, A., and Gardner, K. (in press). Iteratively, the content focus was narrowed to geometry, statistics and advanced algebra. 42, 123–140. Our STEM Job Description Posters and Lanyards are the perfect addition to your STEM classroom. The culminating product from the PD was a STEM lesson the teachers implemented in their classroom (see the Supplementary Document entitled PD Implementation Template and Rubric). The biennial competition challenges collegiate student teams to design and build solar-powered houses that are both incredibly beautiful and sustainable. The setting or environment, available resources, and school or state requirements are some components that contribute to the complexity of the nature and scope of the integration. Available online at: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1161899 (Accesseed December 23, 2018). Mathematical concept: location and transformation. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.01.010, Petty, T., Wang, C., and Harbaugh, A. P. (2013). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Overview of open codes in the qualitative analysis. Use this STEM reflection journal with your students when completing STEM challenges. Synergistically all of the data analyses contribute to the body of knowledge on effective features of STEM PD that foster change in teachers' knowledge and practices. One challenge of designing professional training that integrates STEM subjects is ambiguity in defining STEM education. 39, 74–85. Regular communication through email included accountability check-ins, answering of questions, sharing what each teacher was in their classrooms, discussing resolutions to implementation challenges, and sharing STEM-related information (e.g., teacher and student resources, grants, and conferences) with each other. Similar findings for STEM PD were found in a study by Green and Kent (2016) in which meaningful PD fellow—classroom teacher relationships were shown to have a positive impact on elementary teachers' confidence to teach mathematics, science, and technology using integrative instructional approaches. Psychol. Ecol. Use simple apps that help you do all kinds of useful things. Math. It is important that your students understand the key steps of this process. A rubric created by the researchers was used to evaluate the lesson plans for key features of STEM integration. This indicates teachers can support and drive iSTEMed culture beyond their classroom or STEM disciplines, even within non-STEM schools. The Mathematics Teaching Efficacy and Beliefs subscale measured confidence in teaching mathematics (e.g., continually improving teaching, knowing what it takes to teach effectively, and ability to answer a student's question). Three of the teachers reported having 10 or more years of teaching experience, another three had 3 to 5 years of experience, and two had taught less than three years. It gives your students a clear idea and understanding of where they are up to and what they need to do. Increasing high school teachers self-efficacy for integrated STEM instruction through a collaborative community of practice. The purpose of NASA STEM is to engage students in NASA’s mission. Mathematics, Assessment and Evaluation: Imperatives for Mathematics, Educators. The influence of formal and informal formative pre-service experiences on teacher self-efficacy. A teacher expectation intervention: modelling the practices of high expectation teachers. Higgins, M., Wallace, M. F., and Bazzul, J. Recognizing the interdependence of the four features in practice is integral when planning a PD experience for achieving educational change. Washington, DC. Using an established framework, we designed and implemented the PD according to best practices of integrated STEM education (iSTEMed). A Framework for K-12 Science Education. Conceivably, each method to iSTEMed likely follow different approaches to planning and identifying resource needs, as well as defining different outcomes and implementation challenges. The instrument has been validated for use with both pre-service and in-service teachers. Typically, one subject has a dominate role and concepts or practices of other subjects are included to deepen learning in the targeted subject. J. Sci. The five teachers who completed the PD and reported trying something new, traced their confidence and inspiration back to authentic STEM experiences they had during the PD. In this article, we detail how a STEM education descriptive framework was used to design and enact a year-long professional development with eight middle and secondary teachers at non-STEM focused schools in Southeast USA. Achieving success in understanding how various STEM topics relate to mathematics provided meaningful, authentic learning experiences for the teachers that increased confidence in teaching mathematics. Teacher beliefs as predictors of adolescents' cognitive engagement and achievement in mathematics. Furthermore, the PD integrated rates of change, solving equations and inequalities, factoring and graphing across at least one other STEM concept and discipline. Articles Looking for exciting STEM-related reading material for your group? Math. Connecting Victoria's STEM Ecosystem was launched this month by the state's Lead Scientist, Dr Amanda Caples. Self-efficacy measures significantly increased on three of the seven T-STEM subscales: Mathematics Teaching Efficacy and Beliefs (W = 2.328, P = 0.001), Mathematics Teaching Outcome Expectancy (W = 2.252, P = 0.012), and STEM Career Awareness (W = 2.388, P = 0.008). (2013). Teachers' explicit expectations and implicit prejudiced attitudes to educational achievement: relations with student achievement and the ethnic achievement gap. Since the goal of research question three was to identify changes in teacher practice, open codes centered on classifying the types of activities and practices used in the classroom. Nathaniel, a middle grades science teacher reported using integrated STEM knowledge along with various resources he received from the PD to enhance his teaching and mentoring of students doing projects for the science fair. A clear limitation of the study is the sample size, which prevents us from making generalizations to the larger population. Educ. Teachers also provided responses to survey questions about their efficacy and attitudes toward STEM, and feedback was provided to facilitators at the end of each day through discussion board posts. National Academies Press. When planning simple lessons, ask yourself how can you link an open-ended problem or question that requires your students to work in a team and problem solve together? Have you packed all your craft gear away? Three elements for defining the nature and scope of integration are identified in the Integrate STEM Education framework: (a) type of STEM connections, (b) interdisciplinary emphasis, and (c) duration, size, and complexity of initiative. Integrated STEM Education outcomes for educators include: (a) changes in practice, and (b) increased STEM content and pedagogical content knowledge. Five teachers completed the 50 contact hours through the summer sessions and then continued engagement during the school year by attending face-to-face and virtual sessions, and by self-reporting changes in their classroom practice. We have also developed a number of more in depth STEM investigations that can be used in your classroom. The synergy of the results of the three research questions produce greater combined evidence of the positive impact of the PD than when taken separately. It’s hard to remember a time when STEM fields – that’s science, technology, engineering, and math – weren’t the top priority in education. Monica Foss advises that teachers embrace the chaos. A lot of what we do every day can be turned into STEM learning. Overall, teachers demonstrated that they knew how to blend ideas of the mathematics standards and iSTEMed concepts with available resources and materials for learning. Educ. Also, let us know in what ways you feel you may best influence or support STEM education/initiatives in your school or district. 52, 610–632. Download 140,000+ pages of incredible time-saving teaching resources. Overall, we found the STEM PD did not result in statistically significant gains in content knowledge from the teachers. From these codes, and a re-read of teacher reflection data, selective coding was done and the results are presented in Figure 1. Romberg (1992) noted the complexities of aligning curriculum standards to tests. We conclude with how this STEM education descriptive framework can be helpful in designing effective professional development for teachers at non-STEM focused schools. A review of iSTEMed initiatives, programs, and research uncovered a variety of proposed models of what successful integration requires. A qualitative analysis was used to analyze participant responses to open-ended questions to develop themes to describe the nature of changes in thinking and classroom practice. doi: 10.5951/jresematheduc.43.5.0584. We are not a school or affiliated with any STEM education institute. Engaged students who are buzzing with excitement. Our 2nd Annual STEM Writing Contest We invite students to choose an issue or question in science, technology, engineering, math or health, then write an engaging 500-word explanation. Attention was paid to teachers’ understanding of STEM integration, implementation, practices, and perceptions of the most effective ways for 37, 2065–2090. 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