The primary production area is located between 300 and 1000 mm yr –1 isohyet, … It originated and was domesticated in Southern Africa and was later moved to East and West Africa and Asia. Nigeria is the largest producer and consumer of cowpea with about 5 million ha and over 2 million t production during 2003. opportunities for earning regular income. [ 2 ] who reported the area under legume in some parts of Makueni County ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 ha. In South Africa cowpeas are produced in the North West, Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces. PRODUCTION LEVELS South Africa A large producer of cowpeas is small-scale farmers under dryland farming condi-tions. Field experiments were conducted at the Agricultural Research Council–Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute in South Africa, in 2011 and 2012, to estimate the level of phenotypic variability among a collection of 25 cowpea genotypes. However, the crop growth and production are affected by low soil fertility due to poor soil management practices. The grain provides valuable protein and the leaves are used as a nutritious vegetable. Ghana plans to release GM cowpea sometime this year or next, which would make it the third sub-Saharan African country after South Africa and Nigeria to approve local production and sale of GM food. The leaves can be dried and used as a meat substitute. In South Africa cowpeas are produced in the North West, Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces. Cowpeas are also planted as animal feed - such as hay production and to make silage. Eating Cowpeas Cowpeas can be cooked or either steamed after soaking in water overnight. FAO (FAO Code: 0195 - Cow peas, dry) Production. Cowpea seed set aside for sowing or planting Cowpeas can be planted as an intercrop or in rotation and can tolerate drought. Exact figures for cowpea production are hard to come up with as it is not a major export crop. Cowpeas are high in iron (Fe), potassium (P), vitamin B9, it is rich in fiber, protein (up to 24%), low in fat and high in various amino acids. Depending on the variety used, cowpeas may be climbing and erect (such as Dr Saunders) or creeping (such as Bechuana White). Millions of african farmers grow cowpea, some two hundred million africans consume cowpea, many, maybe a majority of these … especially for Africa, than cowpea,” says Christian Fatokun (IITA 2010). (2000) and Kyamanywa (1996) all reported that thrips are one of the yield limiting pests to cowpea production. With the ability to farm, African people began to develop booming societies. Hunter-gatherers of the time saw potential in the humble pulse and turned their efforts to making the cowpea one of Africa’s first domesticated crops. The green seeds are sometimes roasted like peanuts and these are then used as a substitute for coffee. It is important because it serves as a source of nutrients for human and as fodder for animals and its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen enhances soil fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate 97 newly introduced cowpea germplasm for adaptation and yield parameters. Cowpeas are cultivated predominantly in Africa and are grown for food, fodder and green manure.Cowpea production has expanded in the world over the past decades ().In 2017, over 87% of the crop was produced in Africa ().In South America, Brazil showed a recent increase in cowpea cultivation, placing the country in third place in terms of global area and production. For example, Amatobi (1994), Karungi at al. Cowpea is attacked by various Insect pests, during different phases of its lifecycle even down to storage. Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world cowpea production. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics covering Africa, Asia, Europe, United States and Central and South America. is a protein-rich bean crop that leaves nitrogen in the soil and Silage is preserved animals feeds, ideal for use during droughts. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is a legume crop widely grown in West Africa, where the regional cowpea production accounts for more than 80 % of the global cowpea production.Famers traditionally cultivate cowpea as a low-cost and high-quality protein source and as a major cash crop. (IPM CRSP, 2000). Common names: Arikaans: akkerboon, swartbekboon, boontjie, koertjie, dopboontjie;  English: cowpea, bachapin bean, black-eye bean or pea, catjang, china pea, cowgram, southern pea; Sepedi: dinawa (plural), monawa, nawa; Shangaan: dinaba, munaoa, tinyawa; Setswana: dinawa, nawa-ea-setswana; Tshivenda: munawa (plant), nawa (fruit); isiZulu: imbumba, indumba, isihlumaya. West and Central Africa are the leading cowpea producing regions in the world producing 64% of the estimated 3 million tons of cowpea seed. It is estimated that the annual world cowpea crop is about 12,5 million ha of which the total grain production (for food) is 3 million tons. It originated in Southern Africa and the cultivated form was domesticated in West Africa. the aboveground plant parts of The use of resistant cultivars is among the best management option for this pest, but the success of this strategy is influenced by the stability of the resistant genotype to the cowpea aphid biotypes present in the major cowpea growing areas in a country. Cowpea. Cowpea is an important grain legume in South Africa after groundnuts and dry beans (Asiwe, 2009). Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) is indigenous to Africa and is planted for human consumption and animal fodder. Cowpea plays an important role in the traditional diets in many regions of the world, especially Asia, Africa, and South America, which include most of the world's developing countries. Recent studies have provided further evidence that West Africa was the primary centre of domestication. It is then cooked with other vegetables to make a thick soup, or ground into a meal or paste. This is a major constraint to Cowpea production especially in West Africa, because their damage can be as high as 80-100% if not well managed. What worries some critics is that all of Africa’s genetic modification projects are closely tied to Western organizations. It may be erect, trailing, climbing or bushy, usually indeterminate under favourable conditions. Made in South Africa Cowpea Directory - Offering Wholesale South African Cowpea from South Africa Cowpea Manufacturers, Suppliers and Distributors at TradeKey.com In Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces cowpea leaves are harvested fresh as a vegetable for soup preparation or dried for later use. Cowpea is one of the key food sources in the arid, semi-arid and tropical parts of Asia, Oceania, southern Europe, Africa, southern United States and Central and South America . Production of legumes under dryland conditions in South Africa Although local soybean, dry bean, groundnut and cowpea are widely adapted, they show preferences to specific soil and climatic conditions and will do better on deep and well-drained soils. Production areas in South Africa Cowpea is grown in the following provinces: Limpopo, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, North West and KwaZulu-Natal. Aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch) are an important vegetative stage pest of cowpea in Africa. The … The attributes of Cowpea The trading of seeds and processed foods from cowpea provides both urban and rural opportunities for earning regular income. The TSC decided that project cowpea, except the pods, are utilized for animal fodder. Cowpea production in South Africa is fairly minor when compared to other African countries (FAOSTAT 2004). well adapted to the semi-arid and tropics. 1. 3. Niger is the main exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer. Yearly. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Fresh, immature pods may be boiled as a vegetable. The Sahel region also contains other major producers such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and Mali. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] is an important crop for smallholder farmers in the marginal areas of sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of the seed planted by farmers is sourced from on … Local farmers who cut and store cowpea fodder during the dry season can make as much as 25% of their annual income by selling it as fodder. All Rights Reserved. Ground dried seeds mixed with onions and spices can be fried in oil. Cowpea is grown in millions of smallholder farms in the drier zones of Africa, forming a great arc stretching from Senegal to Sudan and Somalia and southward to Zimbabwe, Botswana and Mozambique. Made in South Africa Cowpeas Directory - Offering Wholesale South African Cowpeas from South Africa Cowpeas Manufacturers, Suppliers and Distributors at TradeKey.com Its production has spread to East and Central Africa, India, Asia, South and Central America. Cowpea has played a very important role in Africa on many regards. Cowpea also has different seed coat colors such as black, red, and cream. Results showed that thrips, pod sucking bugs and legume pod borer are the key pests that limit cowpea production. It looks like your browser does not have JavaScript enabled. The cowpea project will work against three time horizons: short (1–3 years), medium (4–7 years) and long–term (7–10 years). The leaves and growth points can be picked and used as a vegetable dish similar to spinach, but it can also be dried and used as a protein substitute. Infor-mation on cropping systems, cultural practices, con-straints to production, utilization and benefits would help to formulate breeding objectives and make decisions for the improvement of cowpea… Unfortunately, we do not have Overview data related to Cowpea in South Africa at the moment, but we may be able to help you find the data that you need. It is also known as dinawe (Ndebele), dinaba the aboveground plant parts of cowpea, except the pods, are utilized for animal fodder. Cowpea, popularly known as blackeye pea, is an important grain legume in South Africa and many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate cowpea collections using agronomic traits to select promising parents to develop breeding population. therefore has a beneficial effect on the follow-up crop. Although the centre of domestication for cowpea is uncertain, all evidence points to its originating in Africa. History in Africa Thousands of years ago, the cowpea grew wild across Africa. It originated and was domesticated in Southern Africa and was later moved to East and West Africa and Asia. 7. About one kilogram cowpeas is a full meal. Cowpeas can be planted for hay production and the hay can be sold. In East Africa, cultivated cowpeas are a source of vegetables and grains for human consumption. It is a protein-rich bean crop which leaves nitrogen in the soil so it benefits the follow-up crop. Singh, a visiting scholar and cowpea breeder with the Texas A&M soil and crop sciences department in College Station. It is then left to ferment. In Australia and Asia cowpeas are primarily planted for fodder but also as a cover crop or as green manure to enrich the soil with nitrogen and nitrogen-fixing microbes. Twenty-two cowpea genotypes were field evaluated using a randomised complete block design with three replications in two locations in South Africa. This is consistent with findings of other authors elsewhere in Africa. South Africa Online (Pty) Ltd. SouthAfrica.co.za. The cowpeas that have been utilized across the region include both the landraces and improved varieties (Mamiro, 2011). Its production Cowpea is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics covering Africa, Asia, Europe, the United States, and Central and South America. Small-scale farmers grow cowpea intercropped with maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane and cotton. 200 million people in Africa consume cowpea. It is the most planted native legume in sub-Saharan Africa … Silage can be made by mixing the green leaves with sorghum or maize. Cowpeas Estimating world cowpea production is rather difficult, as it is usually grown in a mixture with other crops, but accor… The ground dried seeds is often mixed with onions and spices and fried in oil. Nigeria is the world’s leading cowpea producing country, followed by Brazil. Important producers in Southern Africa are Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Others believe that it originated from Southern Africa. The trading of The climbing type is better suited for forage or as cover crop. Cowpea, popularly known as blackeye pea, is an important grain legume in South Africa and many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Similar findings were reported by Kimiti et al. the cowpea production areas of South Africa mainly Lim-popo, Kwazulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces. (Shangaan), imbumba (Zulu), monawa or nawa (Pedi) and dinawa (Tswana).Cowpeas The major cowpea producing countries in East Africa include Kenya, Tanzania, South Sudan, and Uganda (USAID, 2010). Cultivated cowpea in South Sudan and Africa at large is a single species, but the varietal requirements in terms of plant type, seed type, maturity and usage are extremely diverse from region Its seeds, pods and leaves are commonly used as human food. These are some of the major and important pests of cowpea : Cowpea is a major food legume and a source of dietary protein for masses in Africa, Asia and South America, according to Dr. B.B. Production of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp) in South Africa is limited Cowpeas can produce good yields of high-quality dry matter. Ethiopia, Central, Southern and West Africa have all been considered probable centres of domestication. The leaves and growth points can be picked and used as a vegetable dish. Migration Across the World Simply let us know what you are looking for and we will try our best to help you. Information on genetic variability among the existing cowpea genotypes will increase the efficiency of the cowpea improvement. Please turn on JavaScript and try again. Description Cowpea is an annual summer leguminous plant with varying growth forms. Production Data. It is a subsistence crop, often intercropped with sorghum, maize and pearl millet. Introduction. The aboveground plant parts of cowpea, except the pods, are utilised as animal fodder. Cowpeas are also known as swartbekboontjie (Afrikaans), dinawe (Ndebele), dinaba (Shangaan), imbumba (Zulu), monawa or nawa (Pedi) and dinawa (Tswana). People consume cowpea … Cowpea is a legume that is extensively grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa. focus of the project. Under dryland conditions, yields of cowpea forage 2 to 3 ton of dry matter/ha, but yields of up to 8 t DM/ha that have been recorded in irrigated areas. Activities in the Nigerian cowpea grain shed, the Senegalese grain shed, and in eastern and southern Africa will be considered as venues for project activities. However, farmers in South Africa currently lack good seed for planting and experience very low cowpea grain yields. Cowpea silage is made by using cowpea leaves mixed with the green leaves of maize or sorghum and then compacting the green matter, covering it with plastic and weighing it down to make it airtight. First, cowpea originates in Africa and is a very popular crop on the continent. Asiwe also found out that the area under cowpea was between 0.25 and 2.0 ha per farmer in a survey among cowpea farmers in South Africa. The green seeds are sometimes roasted like peanuts, ground and then used as a substitute for coffee. The best feeding value for animals can be obtained in stands where cowpeas were intercropped with maize. the region. Production. “Cowpea is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics particularly the savannahs of West Africa but also other parts of Africa, Asia and the Americas. is indigenous to Africa. Cowpeas can be planted as an intercrop or in rotation and can tolerate drought. Cowpeas can be cooked or either steamed after soaking in water overnight. seeds and processed foods from cowpea provides both urban and rural Evidence that West Africa have all been considered probable centres of domestication for cowpea are! 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